The homeworlds I fixed (before I left being an ASim) had a starport, shop, hospital and a selection of other facilities like highrises, hotels, landing pads, etc. However I think I only got to about 10-20 homeworlds. I am unsure if (Jenos I believe) continued that when he carried on or if Jesfa has since changed them as well.
All homeworlds (Majority are owned by Darkness/Quests, some factions), have at the very least a Hospital, Starport, and Shop. Those 3 are open to all and are owned by Darkness.
Beyond that all or almost all, have a full city of accessible facilities to visit and hire from. In random bursts of activity I've attempted to give them IC names and whatnot, but the access at least is there.
I believe every city has a factory for workers/builders, and most if not all have barracks. At one point the starport/hospital/shop were possibly on faction owned cities, but I don't believe that is the case anymore, so all homeworlds should potentially have the above.
Several are shielded, however most factions are quite good about letting others in to pick up new players. Also, shields only stop downwards travel, but not upwards travel, so new players can always spawn a ship and fly out regardless.