Generally faction academies do not have specific locations; you will probably be directed to a website or forum where training is held.
Factions will provide transportation for you to get you to where they want you to be. Once you are assigned within the faction they should give you all the relevant information but you will need to work that out with them; we can't help you with that.
Generally factions will send somebody to pick you up and bring you to a ship you can fly yourself, but sometimes it's cheaper to hire private transport yourself. There are a few small unofficial groups that deal in transporting new players for pretty cheap rates, and if you can't afford a few thousand, you can usually find a veteran willing to sponsor you. (Generally speaking I, and several others, have standing agreements with transport groups that we'll cover the transport costs for any newbies who can't afford it themselves)