If you are carrying any items or if there are any items owned by you in the ship, or even if there are any NPCs or droids in the ship, then you should be able to pinpoint the exact location by looking at your item/NPC/Droid inventory.
If that doesn't work, then you're out of luck. The best idea for extraction would be to describe the ship, give its name, type of ship, and system where you are in, and number of passengers. Usually, there are no two of the exact same ship with the exact same name at the exact same location with the exact same amount of passengers.
Also, considering that you entered a system, you will be in at the edge of the system you exited at. You may want to mention that too to your potential savior.
It becomes the property of whoever is assigned Commander of it. If no commander then it hits the NPC market and gets sold to whoever purchases it. There should be a contact owner button that you can use, Jobo, to see if you can get pilot access to get off of it.
Not so Luna, or not quite. If it was planned, then the ships etc would have been made over to someone linked to that faction. Depending on conditions may be put back into another or new faction.
If it was unplanned, then first the pilot would gain ownership. If not pilot assigned, then the commander gets it. If not commander either, then it goes to the NPC market where anyone has a shot at getting it.
What Hal said. I got a ride, so no worries. It would just be useful to actually know what coordinates you are at, but like I said before, it told me what system I am in in my general events. If that is a valuable suggestion, Hal, perhaps you could carry it to the right ears.