You cannot. You will have to use IC methods to ask the owner where you are. If you don't know who owns the ship, or cannot remember, you can try posting in the Traders Lounge with the ship name and id and see if someone knows who owns it and can help them.
Scott, it is by design that a player can not determine their location while in a ship they do not control. That said, your best bet is to post a "Looking for Owner" thread in the Traders Lounge with all the information you do have (at least the name of the ship. If the owner is around and sees it they may be inclined to help you by assigning the ship or giving you the location so you can arrange for pickup. Note that all of these are In-Character means.
If you have a reason to believe it is a bug then you can report it and the admins will handle it, though I doubt that is the case. If you are unable to resolve the situation through an IC means then you may wish to use the Drop Character button to start over (after the 21 day waiting period). I hope this helps.